Orthopedic Surgery Images

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Knee Replacement
In a total knee replacement, an incision is made to expose the knee joint (A). The surfaces of the femur are cut with a saw to receive the prosthesis (B). The tibia is cut to create a plateau (C). The prostheses for the femur, tibia, and patella are put in place (D). The incision is closed (E). (Illustration by GGS Inc.)




Hip Replacement
In a hip replacement, the upper leg bone, or femur, is separated from the hip socket, and the damaged head is removed (A). A reamer is used to prepare the socket for the prosthesis (B). A file is used to create a tunnel in the femur for the prosthesis (C). The hip and socket prostheses are cemented in place (D), and finally connected (E). (Illustration by Argosy.)




Amputation
In an above-the-knee amputation, three incisions are made (A). First the skin and muscle layers are cut (B). The major blood vessels are clamped and severed (C). The bone is cut with a special saw (D). Finally, the muscles are stitched over the bone, and the skin is closed over the wound (E). (Illustration by GGS Inc.)




Arthroplasty
In this shoulder arthroplasty procedure, an incision is made into the shoulder (A). The head of the humerus (upper arm bone) is removed from the shoulder joint, and bone growths, or osteophytes, are removed (B). Small holes are drilled into the head to accept the prosthesis (C). Similar holes are drilled in the glenoid cavity (shoulder joint) (D). The final prosthesis improves shoulder function (E). (Illustration by GGS Inc.)




Rotator Cuff Repair
A rotator cuff injury results in a torn tendon at the top of the shoulder (A). To repair it, an incision is made over the site of the tear (B). The tendon's attachment to the bone is repaired with sutures (C), and a small piece of bone from the acromion may be removed (D) to ensure smoother movement of the tendons. (Illustration by GGS Inc.)




Ganglion Cyst Removal
A ganglion cyst is usually attached to a tendon or muscle in the wrist or finger (A). To remove it, the skin is cut open (B), the growth is removed (C), and the skin is sutured closed (D). (Illustration by GGS Inc.)




Carpal Tunnel Release
To perform a carpal tunnel release, the surgeon makes an incision in the palm of the hand, above the area of the carpal tunnel (B). The carpal ligament going across the hand is severed (C), releasing pressure on the median nerve (D). (Illustration by GGS Inc.)




Knee Arthroscopic Surgery
Surgeons watching a monitor showing the inside of a patient's knee during arthroscopic knee surgery. (Custom Medical Stock Photo. Reproduced by permission.)




Knee Arthroscopic Surgery
Step A shows the anatomy of the knee from the front with the leg bent. To repair a torn meniscus, three small incisions are made into the knee to admit laparoscopic instruments (B). Fluid is injected into the joint to aid in the operation. The injury is visualized via the instruments, and the torn area is removed (C). (Illustration by GGS Inc.)




Bone Grafting
For bone grafting, an incision is made in the donor's hip (A). Pieces of bone are chipped off and removed (B). The bone materials are then transferred to the recipient area, in this case a femur that has been badly broken, to strengthen the bone (C). (Illustration by GGS Inc.)




Bankart Procedure
A Bankart procedure may be performed laparoscopically (A), or through an open incision in the shoulder (B). In the open procedure, the surgeon exposes the joint capsule and labrum, a rim of soft tissue that surrounds the cavity, which has become detached (C). Sutures reattach the labrum to the joint capsule (D). (Illustration by GGS Inc.)




Tendon Repair
To repair a torn tendon, incisions are made to expose the area for repair (A). Some tendons can be reattached through one incision (B), while others require two to access the severed point and the remaining tendon (C). A special splint that minimizes stretching the tendons may be worn after surgery (E). (Illustration by GGS Inc.)




Fracture Repair
In this patient, a fall has resulted in fractures in the bones of the elbow (B). To repair the fracture, an incision is made in the elbow area (C), and the bones are fixed with screws to aid proper healing (D). (Illustration by GGS Inc.)




Shoulder Joint Replacement
During a total shoulder joint replacement, an incision is first made in the shoulder and upper arm (A). The head of the humerus is removed with a bone saw (B). The shaft of the humerus is reamed with a bone rasp to ready it for the prosthesis (C). After the shoulder joint, or glenoid cavity, is similarly prepared, bone cement is applied to areas to receive prostheses (D). The ball and socket prostheses are put in place, and the incision is closed (E). (Illustration by GGS Inc.)




Hip Revision Surgery
Degeneration of the joint around the prosthesis causes pain for some patients who have undergone hip replacement (A). To repair it, an incision is made in the hip and the old prosthesis is removed (B). Bone grafts may be planted in the hip, and a new prosthesis is attached (C). (Illustration by GGS Inc.)




Disk Removal
In the anterior cervical disk removal, an incision is made into the patient's neck (B). The cervical disk, which may be herniated, is visualized (C). It is removed completely (D and E). (Illustration by GGS Inc.)




Finger Reattachment
To save a detached finger for reattachment surgery, it should be wrapped in a moist paper towel and put on ice (A). First the surgeon will reattach the blood vessels and nerves of the finger (B). The bone may be repaired with wires (C), and tendons are repaired (D). Skin and muscle wounds are also closed during the procedure. (Illustration by GGS Inc.)




Leg Lengthening/Shortening
These twin sisters are undergoing leg lengthening treatment. Their mother turns bolts on the external fixators of the leg to increase the distance between the two parts of the the surgically broken bone 1 millimeter a day. (Custom Medical Stock Photo. Reproduced by permission.)




Leg Lengthening/Shortening
To lengthen a leg surgically, an incision is made in the leg to access the femur (A). A surgical drill is used to weaken the femur so the surgeon can break it. During the operation, screws are drilled into the bone on both sides of the break, and an external fixator is applied (B). The gap between the two pieces of bone is increased gradually (C), so new bone growth results in a longer leg (D). (Illustration by GGS Inc.)




Webbed Finger or Toe Repair
This webbed finger shows a simple, complete syndactyly, meaning the bones for two fingers are complete, and only the soft tissues form the webbed section (A). To repair this, an incision is made in the skin of the webbing (B). Tissues and muscles are severed (C), and the two separated fingers are stitched (D). (Illustration by GGS Inc.)




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