Type of Surgery

Information

Doctor Certified

Last updated: 11/24/2009

Demographics

Congenital birth defects involving a bicuspid aortic valve can develop stenosis. These patients may become symptomatic in mid-teen years through age 65. Patients with a history rheumatic fever have a disposition for aortic stenosis, but may live symptom...

free for more then four decades. Calcification of the aortic valve tends to effect an older population with 30% of patients over age 85 having stenosis at autopsy.

Patients with aortic stenosis who have angina, dyspnea, or fainting are candidates for aortic valve replacement. Asymptomatic patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting should be treated with aortic valve replacement, but otherwise are not candidates for preventive aortic valve replacement.

Patients with a history of rheumatic fever or syphilitic aortitis (inflammation of the aorta) face the possibility of developing aortic insufficiency. Successful treatment has decreased this causative relationship. Primary causes of aortic disease commonly include bacterial endocarditis, trauma, aortic dissection, and congenital diseases.

Patients showing acute symptoms, including pulmonary edema, heart rhythm problems, or circulatory collapse, are candidates for aortic valve replacement. Chronic pathologies are recommended for surgery when patients appear symptomatic, demonstrating angina and dyspnea. Asymptomatic patients must be monitored for heart dysfunction. Left ventricular dimensions greater then 2 in (50 mm) at diastole or 3 in (70 mm) at systole are indications for replacement when aortic insufficiency is diagnosed.




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The heart is accessed through a chest incision (A). The patient's heart function is replaced by the heart-lung machine. The aorta is cut open to reveal a diseased aortic valve (B), which is then removed. A valve sizer is placed in the opening to determine the size of prosthesis needed (C). A prosthetic valve is sutured in place (D and E). (Illustration by Argosy.) The heart is accessed through a chest incision (A). The patient's heart function is replaced by the heart-lung machine. The aorta is cut open to reveal a diseased aortic valve (B), which is then removed. A valve sizer is placed in the opening to determine the size of prosthesis needed (C). A prosthetic valve is sutured in place (D and E). (Illustration by Argosy.)




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Other Information

Aortic valve replacement is a cardiac surgery procedure in which a patient's aortic valve is replaced by a different valve. The aortic valve can be affected by a range of diseases; the valve can either become leaky (aortic insufficiency / regurgitation) or partially blocked (aortic stenosis). Aortic valve replacement currently requires open heart surgery.


From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aortic_valve_replacement

Other Information

In the United States, 74.2 percent of heart transplantation patients are male, 68.4 percent are white, 24.7 percent are younger than age 35, 20.0 percent are ages 35–49, and 55.3 percent are age 50 or older.


From: American Heart Association

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