Type of Surgery
Last updated: 11/24/2009
Parkinson's disease is due to degeneration of a group of cells called the substantia nigra. These cells interact with other brain regions to help control movement. The normal signals from the substantia nigra inhibit these other regions, and so when...
it degenerates, these regions become overactive. The electrical signals from the DBS electrodes mimic the inhibitory function of the substantia nigra, helping to restore more normal movements.
The substantia nigra normally releases the chemical dopamine, which exerts its inhibitory action on the globus pallidus interna (GPi) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN). For Parkinson's disease, deep brain stimulation is performed on these two centers. The target for DBS in dystonia is the GPi as well. Treatment of essential tremor usually targets the thalamus.
Each of these brain regions has two halves, which control movement on the opposite side of the body: right controls left, and left controls right. Unilateral DBS may be used if the symptoms are much more severe on one side. Bilateral DBS is used to treat symptoms on both sides.
In this video, a physician provides an overview of our current understanding of schizophrenia. The symptoms, changes in the brain, and genetics of schizophrenia are discussed.
In neurotechnology, deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical treatment involving the implantation of a medical device called a brain pacemaker, which sends electrical impulses to specific parts of the brain. DBS in select brain regions has provided remarkable therapeutic benefits for otherwise treatment-resistant movement and affective disorders such as chronic pain, Parkinsonâ€™s disease, tremor and dystonia. Despite the long history of DBS, its underlying principles and mechanisms are still not clear. DBS directly changes brain activity in a controlled manner, its effects are reversible (unlike those of lesioning techniques) and is one of only a few neurosurgical methods that allows blinded studies.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved DBS as a treatment for essential tremor in 1997, for Parkinson's disease in 2002, and dystonia in 2003. DBS is also routinely used to treat chronic pain and has been used to treat various affective disorders, including major depression. While DBS has proven helpful for some patients, there is potential for serious complications and side effects.
Even patients who had a single metastasis surgically removed should have radiation therapy as there are always individual tumor cells remaining.
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