Type of Surgery
Last updated: 11/24/2009
To understand hip surgery, it is helpful to have a brief description of the structure of the human hip. The femur, or thigh bone, is connected to the knee at its lower end and forms part of the hip joint at its upper end. The femur ends in a ball-shaped...
piece of bone called the femoral head. The short, slanted segment of the femur that lies between the femoral head and the long vertical femoral shaft is called the neck of the femur. In a normal hip, the femoral head fits snugly into a socket called the acetabulum. The hip joint thus consists of two parts, the pelvic socket or acetabulum, and the femoral head.
The hip is susceptible to damage from a number of diseases and disorders, including arthritis, traumatic injury, avascular necrosis, cerebral palsy, or Legg-Calve-Perthes (LCP) disease in young patients. The hip socket may be too shallow, too large, or too small, or the femoral head may lose its proper round contour. Problems related to the shape of the bones in the hip joint are usually referred to as hip dysplasia. Hip replacement surgery is often the preferred treatment for disorders of the hip in older patients. Adolescents and young adults, however, are rarely considered for this type of surgery due to their active lifestyle; they have few good options for alleviating their pain and improving joint function if they are stricken by a hip disorder. Osteotomies are performed in these patients, using the patient's own tissue in order to restore joint function in the hip and eliminate pain. An osteotomy corrects a hip deformity by cutting and repositioning the bone, most commonly in patients with misalignment of certain joints or mild osteoarthritis. The procedure is also useful for people with osteoarthritis in only one hip who are too young for a total joint replacement.
The hip is responsible for a broad range of movement despite being subjected to tremendous forces. Sports can cause a number of hip disorders such as bursitis and overuse injuries. A physician for LPGA golfers explains various sports-related hip injuries.
An osteotomy is a surgical operation whereby a bone is cut to shorten, lengthen, or change its alignment. It is sometimes performed to correct a hallux valgus, or to straighten a bone that has healed crookedly following a fracture. It is also used to correct a coxa vara, genu valgum, and genu varum. The operation is done under a general anaesthetic.
Two main types of osteotomies are used in the correction of hip dysplasias and deformities to improve alignment/interaction of acetabulum - (socket) - and femoral head (femur head) - (ball), innominate osteotomies and femoral osteotomies. The bones are cut, reshaped or partially removed to realign the load bearing surfaces of the joint.
Adjustments are made to part of the hip-bone. Many operating methods and variations have been developed. They are defined by the type of cut and adjustment made Some acetabular procedures are named after the surgeons who first described them as Salter (R. Salter), Dega (W. Dega), Sutherland (D.H. Sutherland), Chiari (K. Chiari): other names one may encounter are Ludlov, P. Pemberton, and James B. Steele. Some are named after the shape of cut (e.g. Chevron, Wedge) or the way the bones are aligned (Dial=old style rotary dial phone).
Femoral osteotomies, as the name indicates, involves adjustments made to the femur head and/or the femur.
Orthopedic complaints are the most common reason to seek medical care.
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