Type of Surgery
Last updated: 02/17/2009
The diagnosis of hypospadias in boys is often made at the time of delivery during the newborn examination. The condition may also be diagnosed before birth by ultrasound; according to a group of Israeli researchers, ultrasound...
images of severe hypospadias resemble the outline of a tulip flower. Ultrasound is also used prior to surgical repair to check for other abnormalities, as about 18% of boys with hypospadias also have cryptorchidism (undescended testicles), inguinal hernia, or defects of the upper urinary tract.
Hypospadias in girls may not be discovered for several months after birth because of the difficulty of examining the vagina in newborn females.
Male infants with hypospadias should not be circumcised as the foreskin may be needed for tissue grafting during repair of the hypospadias.
Some surgeons prescribe small doses of male hormones to be given to the child in advance to increase the size of the penis and improve blood supply to the area. The child may also be given a mild sedative immediately before surgery to minimize memories of the procedure.
Hypospadias repair is surgery to correct a birth defect in boys in which the urethra does not properly exit the tip of the penis.
For information on the condition itself, see: Hypospadias.
The surgery is done while the child is under general anesthesia (asleep and pain-free). The type of repair depends on the severity of the defect. Mild defects may be repaired in a one procedure, while severe defects may require two or more procedures.
A small piece of foreskin, or tissue from another site, can be used to create a tube to extend the length of the urethra. The urethra is the tube that releases urine from the body. Extending the length allows an opening to be placed at the tip of the penis.
Circumcision should not be performed at birth in boys with hypospadias, so that the foreskin can later be used for the repair.
It's a controversial arena -- the PSA is a marker of prostate bulk and size, but it's highly expressed in benign prostate disease as well as cancer -- so in that context it's not a specific marker.
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