Type of Surgery


Last updated: 11/24/2009



Walsh, Patrick C., MD, et al., eds. Campbell's Urology, 8th ed. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 2002.


Elliott, Daniel S., MD. "Medical Management of Overactive Bladder."Mayo...

Clinic Proceedings
76 (April 2001): 353-355.

Ganio, E., A. Masin, C. Ratto, et al. "Short-Term Sacral Nerve Stimulation for Functional Anorectal and Urinary Disturbances: Results in 40 Patients: Evaluation of a New OPtion for Anorectal Functional Disorders."Disorders of the Colon and Rectum 44 (September 2001): 1261-1267.

Kenefick, N. J., C. J. Vaisey, R. C. Cohen, et al. "Medium-Term Results of Permanent Sacral Nerve Stimulation for Faecal Incontinence."British Journal of Surgery 89 (July 2002); 896-601.

Linares Quevedo, A. I., M. A. Jiminez Cidre, E. Fernandez Fernandez, et al. "Posterior Sacral Root Neuromodulation in the Treatment of Chronic Urinary Dysfunction. [in Spanish] Actas urologicas espanolas 26 (April 2002): 250-260.


American Urological Association (AUA). 1120 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21201. (410) 727-1100. .

National Association for Continence (NAFC). P. O. Box 1019, Charleston, SC 29402-1019. (843) 377-0900. .

National Kidney Foundation. 30 East 33rd Street, Suite 1100, New York, NY 10016. (800) 622-9010 or (212) 889-2210. .

National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC). 3 Information Way, Bethesda, MD 20892-3580.


Interstitial Cystitis Association. Sacral Nerve Stimulation CanRelieve Interstitial Cystitis, Studies Suggest. .

Mayo Clinic. Sacral Nerve Stimulation.



Much of the difficulty in brain surgery recovery comes with healing of the skull and covering of the brain. This video shows that a tumor in a particular location can be removed by entering through the nose, rather than the skull. The endoscopic endonasal approach or EEA is associated with rapid recovery times compared to most other types of brain surgery.

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Other Information

Sacral nerve stimulation, also termed sacral neuromodulation, involves the implantation of a programmable stimulator under the dura matar which delivers low amplitude electrical stimulation to the S3 or S4 root. Currently, the FDA has approved InterStim Therapy, by Medtronic, as a safe sacral nerve stimulator for treatment of Urinary Urge Incontinence, Urinary Frequency, and Urinary Retention. Sacral nerve stimulation is under investigation as treatment for a host of other conditions, though.

From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sacral_nerve_stimulation

Other Information

On neurosurgery it is important to have new types of procedures, like stereotactic radiosurgery that is a newer type of focused radiation that has been used with some success for patients with metastatic brain tumors


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