Type of Surgery


Last updated: 02/17/2009



Devinsky, O. A Guide to Understanding and Living withEpilepsy. Philadelphia: E. A. Davis, 1994.

"Seizure Disorders." Section 14, Chapter 172 in The MerckManual of Diagnosis and Therapy,...

edited by Mark H. Beers, MD, and Robert Berkow, MD. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck Research Laboratories, 1999.


Rielo, Diego, MD, and Selim R. Benbadis, MD. "Vagus Nerve Stimulation."eMedicine, April 12, 2002 [June 10, 2003]. .


American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS). 5550 Meadowbrook Drive, Rolling Meadows, IL 60008. (847) 378-0500. .

Epilepsy Foundation. 4351 Garden City Drive, Landover, MD 20785-7223. (800) 332-1000. .




Other Information

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an adjunctive treatment for certain types of intractable epilepsy and major depression. VNS uses an implanted stimulator that sends electric impulses to the left vagus nerve in the neck via a lead wire implanted under the skin.

Vagus, the tenth cranial nerve arises from the medulla and carries both afferent and efferent fibers. The afferent vagal fibers connect to the nucleus of the solitary tract which in turn projects connections to other locations in the central nervous system. Little is understood about exactly how vagal nerve stimulation modulates mood and seizure control but proposed mechanisms include alteration of norepinephrine release by projections of solitary tract to the locus coeruleus, elevated levels of inhibitory GABA related to vagal stimulation and inhibition of aberrant cortical activity by reticular system activation

From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vagus_nerve_stimulation

Other Information

The most common spine procedure is Lumbar Disc laminectomy, with 185,651 performed in 2006. The second highest category is Cranial, with 592,443 procedures performed and the most common Cranial procedure is Supratentorial Craniotomy, with 55,578 performed.

From: AANS

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