Type of Surgery

Knee & Leg Images

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In a total knee replacement, an incision is made to expose the knee joint (A). The surfaces of the femur are cut with a saw to receive the prosthesis (B). The tibia is cut to create a plateau (C). The prostheses for the femur, tibia, and patella are put in place (D). The incision is closed (E). (Illustration by GGS Inc.)

In an above-the-knee amputation, three incisions are made (A). First the skin and muscle layers are cut (B). The major blood vessels are clamped and severed (C). The bone is cut with a special saw (D). Finally, the muscles are stitched over the bone, and the skin is closed over the wound (E). (Illustration by GGS Inc.)

In this shoulder arthroplasty procedure, an incision is made into the shoulder (A). The head of the humerus (upper arm bone) is removed from the shoulder joint, and bone growths, or osteophytes, are removed (B). Small holes are drilled into the head to accept the prosthesis (C). Similar holes are drilled in the glenoid cavity (shoulder joint) (D). The final prosthesis improves shoulder function (E). (Illustration by GGS Inc.)

Surgeons watching a monitor showing the inside of a patient's knee during arthroscopic knee surgery. (Custom Medical Stock Photo. Reproduced by permission.)

Step A shows the anatomy of the knee from the front with the leg bent. To repair a torn meniscus, three small incisions are made into the knee to admit laparoscopic instruments (B). Fluid is injected into the joint to aid in the operation. The injury is visualized via the instruments, and the torn area is removed (C). (Illustration by GGS Inc.)

In this patient, a fall has resulted in fractures in the bones of the elbow (B). To repair the fracture, an incision is made in the elbow area (C), and the bones are fixed with screws to aid proper healing (D). (Illustration by GGS Inc.)

These twin sisters are undergoing leg lengthening treatment. Their mother turns bolts on the external fixators of the leg to increase the distance between the two parts of the the surgically broken bone 1 millimeter a day. (Custom Medical Stock Photo. Reproduced by permission.)

To lengthen a leg surgically, an incision is made in the leg to access the femur (A). A surgical drill is used to weaken the femur so the surgeon can break it. During the operation, screws are drilled into the bone on both sides of the break, and an external fixator is applied (B). The gap between the two pieces of bone is increased gradually (C), so new bone growth results in a longer leg (D). (Illustration by GGS Inc.)

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